Inflammation and Heart Disease

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Heart disease is on the rise worldwide. It’s a serious chronic (long-term) condition.

It’s considered a “lifestyle” disease. This means that it tends to occur in people with certain lifestyles (i.e. not-so-awesome nutrition and exercise habits, etc.).

Heart disease is also linked with excess body fat, as well as inflammation.

While there are several links and risk factors, today we’re going to talk specifically about inflammation. Then I’ll give you some tips how to improve your nutrition and lifestyle.

NOTE: None of these are a substitute for professional medical advice. If you have any of heart disease, make sure you’re being monitored regularly by a licensed healthcare professional.

 

Inflammation

Inflammation has been getting a lot of bad press lately, but it’s not always a bad thing. As in most areas of health, it’s the balance that’s important.

Inflammation is a natural process that our body uses to protect against infections, irritants, and damage. Inflammation helps our bodies eliminate damaged cells and tissues and helps them to repair. It also helps to reduce the cause of the damage, for example, by fighting the infection.

The word inflammation comes from the Latin word “inflammo,” meaning “I set alight, I ignite.”

Inflammation is a natural process to protect and heal our bodies. However, it can become self-perpetuating and stick around way longer than necessary. This long-term (chronic) inflammation is often associated with several health conditions, including heart disease.

 

Types of inflammation - Acute vs. chronic

When inflammation happens in a big way, for a short time, this is known as “acute” inflammation. Signs of acute inflammation include redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function.

These short durations of strong inflammation can help the body to heal injuries and infections.

On the other hand, when inflammation sticks around longer than necessary, it’s called “chronic” inflammation. Chronic inflammation can damage the body over time, without many signs or symptoms at all. It’s this type of inflammation linked to conditions like heart disease. It’s also linked with many other conditions of the body, brain, and even mental health concerns.

 

What inflammation does

Inflammation stems from the immune system’s response, and also involves our blood vessels (arteries and veins) and other molecules.

One of these molecules is the infamous “free radical.” These highly reactive molecules (oxidants) help to fight infectious agents, and also help cells to communicate. But, when they are in overdrive, and they aren’t counteracted with many antioxidants, they can tip the balance and cause damage to healthy cells.

There are several other inflammatory molecules, one of which can be measured with a blood test. This is C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is considered one of the “markers” of inflammation. This “inflammatory marker,” when found in a blood test at high levels, indicate that there is inflammation in the body.

High blood levels of inflammatory markers like CRP are associated with increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Some researchers believe that levels of inflammatory markers in the blood can actually predict whether someone is going to eventually develop heart disease.

 

Chronic inflammation and heart disease

Heart disease is a major cause of death in countries such as Australia, the US, Canada, and the European Union.

The link between inflammation and heart disease was discovered back in 2006. The first stage of heart disease is called “atherosclerosis.” Complications of heart disease include things like heart attacks. Inflammation is a key issue linked with both atherosclerosis and heart attacks.

Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) starts when there are too many “free radicals” inside the blood vessels. This can be from high blood sugar, high levels of oxidized fats in the blood (from too many free radicals), low levels of homocysteine (an anti-inflammatory molecule), etc.. These lead to damage of the inside surfaces of the blood vessels allowing buildup of plaque (including immune system cells) which increases chronic inflammation. This plaque narrows the inside of the blood vessels, and can lead to complications like heart attacks. And after a heart attack, inflammation increases to even higher levels.

Research is underway specifically targeting inflammation to try to reduce heart and blood vessel injury, reduce the worsening of heart disease, and to promote healing.

 

Nutrition and lifestyle upgrades

There is a lot of evidence that improving nutrition and lifestyle can help many factors associated with chronic diseases, including reducing inflammation.

In fact, according to the NIH:

“The main treatment for atherosclerosis is lifestyle changes.”

Here are several ways you can upgrade your nutrition and lifestyle.

 

Anti-inflammatory diet

A nutritious diet promotes health, reduces risk of many chronic diseases, and can reduce inflammation.

Some areas that are being researched now are anti-inflammatory diets and foods.

One diet has a lot of science supporting its health promoting, emotional well-being improving, and life extending properties. This is the Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet includes a lot of vegetables, fruits, and legumes; some fish, whole grains, and tree nuts; and small amounts of olive oil, tea, cocoa, red wine, herbs, and spices.

Foods common in the Mediterranean diet contain substances that are both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Substances like polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, unsaturated fats (including omega-3s), and anti-inflammatory vitamins and minerals like vitamin E and selenium. These foods may also help to improve the quality of blood lipids, and the gut microbiota.

 

FUN FACT: Most people get the highest amount of dietary polyphenols from coffee and/or tea (but I don’t recommend cream and white refined sugar).

 

Many anti-inflammatory effects of these foods have been demonstrated in a lab or in animals. Extra-virgin olive oil, tree nuts, and cocoa have been associated with anti-inflammatory effects, like reducing blood levels of CRP, in people.

Even when we look at individual components in a food, we should keep in mind that it’s the whole diet, with all foods and lifestyle components that help to promote health. One or two individual aspects don’t have the same effect as a holistic approach to improving overall nutrition and lifestyle.

 

Inflammation - Sugar and starch

Excess sugars and starches promote inflammation in the body.

Animals who eat sweets and white bread, and drink a lot of sugar-sweetened beverages have higher levels of inflammatory markers like CRP. Studies in people also show that diets low in sugar and starch have lower than average levels of CRP.

One possible reason is that more sugar and starch may increase production of inflammatory molecules and free radicals by giving immune cells more fuel and increase their activity.

You can upgrade your nutrition in this area by eating fewer sugars (especially “added” sugars) and starches (especially “refined” starches).

 

Inflammation - Dietary fat

Some lab and animal studies show that increased levels of saturated fats can increase production of inflammatory markers and free radicals. Meals with unsaturated fats seem to reduce the inflammatory response after the meal.

Unsaturated fats like omega-3’s from fish seem to be particularly healthful. People who eat more fish tend to have lower levels of atherosclerosis and heart disease.


Fish-based omega-3 unsaturated fats reduce inflammation in several ways. They reduce the source of inflammation, as well as increase the amount of anti-inflammatory molecules.

You can upgrade your dietary fats by eating more fish and nuts. Fish and nuts contain unsaturated fats that have anti-inflammatory effects.

When it comes to fish oil supplements, many studies show reduction in risk factors for heart disease by improving the way our bodies metabolize fats and its ability to “thin” the blood. However, fish oil supplements have mixed reviews when it comes to reducing inflammation. They can be helpful for some, but I recommend eating the fish itself.

 

Inflammation - Dietary fibre

People who eat more fibre tend to have lower risks of heart disease. There are a few ways this is thought to work, one is from reduced inflammation. This is because people who eat more fibre, fruits, and vegetables tend to have lower levels of CRP.

In fact, animal studies show that eating fibre reduces the levels of inflammatory markers.

Foods that are high in fibre include whole grains, legumes (i.e. beans and lentils), cocoa, seeds (e.g. sesame), tree nuts (e.g. almonds), avocados, raspberries, and squash.

 

Inflammation - Exercise

Regular exercise helps with many chronic diseases, as well as helping to reduce inflammation.

Levels of inflammatory markers are lower in people who exercise regularly, than those who do not. Plus, the people who exercise at a higher intensity tend to have even lower levels of CRP.

In fact, adding regular moderate exercise to a nutritious anti-inflammatory diet has benefits beyond the dietary benefits, like even lower levels of inflammatory markers in the blood (i.e. like CRP).

I encourage you to reduce the amount of time you are sedentary, and take active breaks.

 

Inflammation - Sleep

Both acute and chronic sleep deprivation cause an increase in inflammatory markers in the blood.

Upgrade your sleep by making it more of a priority.

 

Conclusion

Heart disease is a serious condition. Inflammation can be healthy if its fighting an infection or healing a wound, but chronic inflammation is associated with many serious conditions.

There are a lot of nutrition and lifestyle issues that can contribute to chronic diseases. There are several ways they can do this; inflammation is just one of them.

The good news is that there are are several nutrition and lifestyle factors you can improve. These include eating less sugars and starches, eating more fish, nuts and dietary fibre, and getting regular exercise and quality sleep.

NOTE: None of these are a substitute for professional medical advice. If you have any of these conditions, make sure you’re being monitored regularly by a licensed healthcare professional. 

 

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Jessica Mitton

 

Jessica Mitton is a Registered Holistic Nutritionist and Culinary Nutrition Expert. She believes in a holistic approach, taking into consideration the body, mind and spirit. She is fascinated by the healing potential of food and how it can contribute to an individual’s overall health. A passionate creative force in the kitchen, Jessica is continually working to develop her own highly nutritious and equally delicious recipes, made from whole, organic and locally sourced ingredients. Most of all, she enjoys the opportunity to share her passion and knowledge with others, helping them to become their healthiest possible self!